No, the uninstaller wouldn't run in a Linux environment. It is a good thought and question, but it won't work. What you can do is install the Recovery Console from within the Linux environment, and then do the fix from that.
It won't work in an external Windows environment, such as UBCD, either because the Windows environment is independent of the information contained in the uninstaller. For example, the registry entries are all contained in the system's internal Windows environment, not the UBCD environment. What you can do is manually reverse the update install by manually reverting files to their pre-update versions, reversing registry entries, etc. Having said that, it would not be a job for the faint of heart or anyone other than an real expert with complete knowledge of exactly what changes any particular update made to the system.
I think this lesson is one where backups, backups and more backups are essential in today's real world computing.